Zakat-Purification: one of the five pillars of Islam
Zakaat is one of the five fundamentals of Islaam.
The Prophet sallallahu alayhi wasallam said: Islaam is founded on Five
Pillars: bearing witness that there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad Sallallahu
alayhi wasallam is His servant and apostle; establishment of Salaat; paying of
Zakaat; performance of Hajj; and fasting in Ramadhaan.
After Imaan, Salaat is the most important act of worship which has to be performed bodily and Zakaat is the main act of worship which is to be performed monetarily. Salaat and Zakaat has been mentioned together many times in the Qur'aan: " . . and establish regular Salaat and give regular Zakaat".
This substantiates the fact that Zakaat is the most important fundamental after Salaat. Those who fulfil this duty have been promised abundant reward in this World and in the Hereafter; and those who evade Zakaat have been sternly warned in the Qur'aan and Hadeeth of the consequences.
The word Zakaat means purification. As a term it is used to express poor tax of property bestowed in alms, as a sanctification of the remainder to the proprietor.
"Take from their wealth alms, that you may cleanse them and purify them thereby." (9:103)
Zakaat is binding on all the believers who have enough wealth. One of the benefits of Zakaat is that it purifies the wealth. But what is most interesting is that it will cause enhancement of wealth. The Glorious Qur'aan says,
"And what you give in usury, so that it may increase through (other) people's wealth it does not increase with Allah, but what you give in Zakaat, seeking Allah's Pleasure, then it is those who shall gain reward manifold..." (30:39)
It may be added here that a great warning has been given to those who do not pay Zakaat.
"And (there are) those who hoard gold and silver and do not spend it in the Cause of Allah so give them the tidings of a painful punishment." (9:34)
It is an institution of Islaam and founded upon an express command in the Qur'aan:
"And keep up Salaat and pay Zakaat and contribute for Allah's Sake a contribution." (73:20 )
"Only he shall attend the Mosques of Allah who believes in Allah and the Last Day, establishes Salaat and pays Zakaat." (9:18)
It is significant to note that the two injunctions, to establish Salaat and to pay Zakaat are mentioned together, in a number of verses in the Qur'aan as basic ordinances of Islaamic Faith. We may quote the following verses in addition to those quoted above.
"But if they repent, establish Salaat and pay Zakaat, they are your brethren in Faith." (9:11)
"And they were not ordered except that they should serve Allah being sincere to Him in the Deen as men pure in Faith, and establishing Salaat and paying Zakaat." (98:5 )
"These are verses of the Wise Book (the Qur'aan), a guidance and a mercy to the doers of good, who keep up the Salaat and pay the Zakaat." (31:24)
One who has the means and saves wealth following the instructions of religion and it remains spare and more than one's needs during the year, then an amount is to be paid according to the ratio of this spare wealth.
One who possesses such money and does not give Zakaat out of it according to Shari’at, is a sinner and will be punishable very severely on the Day' of Judgement.
::Benefits of Giving Zakaat::
The following are some of the many benefits mentioned in the Ahaadeeth for the one who gives his Zakaat:
Pleasure of Allah;
Increase in wealth;
Protection from losses;
Forgiveness and blessing from Allah;
Safety from calamities;
Protection from the wrath of Allah and from bad death;
Shelter on the Day of Judgement;
Security from seventy misfortunes;
Shield from the fire of Jahannam;
Safety from grief.
::Consequences Of Withholding Zakaat:;
::Consequences of not Paying Zakaat in this world::
When Allah Almighty sends a calamity to punish people for their sins, no power on earth can prevent its onslaught. Men may form thousands of plans but something decided by the Lord of the universe trust come to pass. Now a days, the calamity of famine, flood etc. has become a great problem for the whole world. If we wish to redeem the sufferings and cure malady we shall have to follow the remedy revealed to us by Allah. Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam has warned us fourteen hundred years ago, against all those evil practices which bring calamities and afflictions in this world.
The warning was given long ago and, now, the world has tested its truth by experience. Today the predictions are coming true. If only, people had acted according to the rules prescribed by Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam, who was undoubtedly the wisest of all wise men. It is beyond the scope of this article to discuss how specific evils cause specific afflictions, but we will bring to the attention of the readers, the Ahaadeeth related to the subject matter, non-payment of Zakaat.
::Zakaat - A cause of Famine::
Buraydah radhiyallahu anhu relates that Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said,
"The nation that withholds Zakaat (i.e. does not pay it), Allah afflicts famine on them".
Ibne Umar radhiyallahu anhumaa relates that Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam once said,
"O Muhaajireen! there are five (dreadful) sins; if you fall into these - and I take refuge in Allah from the evil of these sins lest you fall into them - (you will face horrible disasters) "... "Thirdly, if people stop paying Zakaat, rain will be withheld from them, and were it not for the animals, not a single drop of rain would fall upon them."
A similar Hadeeth is also reported by Ibne Abbaas radhiyallahu anhumaa.
::Zakaat - A cause of Windstorm, Earthquake etc.::
Ali and Aboo Hurayrah radhiyallahu anhumaa reports that Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, "When people of my Ummah do fifteen things" ... "When Zakaat is looked upon as a penalty (i.e., people will pay Zakaat with a heavy heart, as though it is a penalty), then look for violent windstorms, earthquakes, men being swallowed by the earth, metamorphosis, stones being pelted from the skies, and calamities following one another in rapid succession, like beads of rosary falling one after the other when its string is cut."
::Destruction of property::
Umar radhiyallahu anhu narrates that Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said,
"Wealth is generally lost on the land and the sea because Zakaat has not been paid on it."
Aa'ishah radhiyallahu anhaa narrates that Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said,
"Zakaat will destroy the wealth in which it is."
Note: The wealth on which Zakaat is obligatory, but from which Zakaat has not been taken out will be steadily destroyed by way of Allah removing the barakat from the wealth.
::Consequences in the Hereafter::
"And those who hoard gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of Allah, give them tidings of a painful punishment. On that day it (i.e. the wealth) will be heated in the fire of Jahannam, then their foreheads and their flanks and their backs will be branded therewith and (it will be said to them): Here is (the treasure) which you hoarded for yourselves. Now taste that which you had been hoarding." (9:34-35)
Note: Majority of the Sahaabah and ulamaa are agreed that the severe punishment mentioned in this verse is for those who do not pay Zakaat. May Allah protect us from such severe punishments.
"And let not those who hoard up wealth which Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty think that it is better for them. No, it is worse for them. That which they hoard will be made a collar (in the form of a snake and put around their necks) on the Day of Qiyaamah." (3:180)
Note: Imaam Raazi writes in his tafseer, 'This verse does not apply to the cases of Nafl (optional) spending. It applies to cases of failure in obligatory spending.'
This is substantiated by a Hadeeth in Bukhaari that Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said,
"The person on whom Allah bestowed wealth, and he does not give Zakaat on it, then on the Day of Judgement, his wealth will be transformed for him into a large bald snake with two black spots over it's eyes; it will wind round his neck on the Day of Qiyaamah then grab both his jaws and say: 'I am your wealth, I am your treasure."' Then Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam recited the above verse.
Aboo Hurayrah radhiyallahu anhu reports that Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said,
"If anyone possessing gold and silver does not pay what is due, then on the Day of Qiyaamah, his gold and silver will be made into sheets and will be heated in the fire of Jahannam. His side, forehead and back will then be branded with (the heated sheets), again and again, on that day, the duration of which will be fifty thousand years."
Once Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam saw gold bangles on the hands of two women. He inquired if they gave Zakaat for the bangles? They replied, "No." Rasoolullah Sallallahu alayhi wasallam said, "Do you wish that on the Day of Qiyaamah you be made to put on bangles of fire?" They replied, "No." He said, "Give Zakaat on them."
The following facts are clear from the aforementioned discussion:
Zakaat is Fardh.
Significance of Zakaat is very great.
Failure to pay Zakaat will bring calamity and misfortune in this world and in the hereafter.
Allah the All-Merciful has bestowed upon us all favours. He has given us health and wealth, luxury and comfort, friends and children, life and wife. Every penny that we earn is by the Grace Of Allah. He has given us everything and asks for only 2.5% to be spent in his way upon those who are not capable of providing themselves. Remember, 2.5% at the end of each Islaamic year from the excess wealth (i.e., which remains after spending) is basically nothing.
If we pay Zakaat in full and abstain from greed, extravagance, there will not remain a single destitute among the Muslims. Rasoolullah sallallahu alayhi wasallam's Hadeeth is clear evidence for this claim. He said, "In the wealth of rich Muslims the amount which is sufficient for the poor among the Muslims has been made obligatory. The hardships of the poor among the Muslims regarding food and clothing are because of the deeds of the wealthy (i.e. their refusal to pay proper Zakaat). Beware! Allah will demand a stern reckoning from them and mete out a painful punishment."
Bear in mind that anything we leave behind is not ours. If we want to protect our hard- earned money and save it for use at a time when we shall need it badly, let us spend it in the way of Allah and deposit it in the bank of the hereafter.
May Almighty Allah help and guide us out of His Kindness and Grace to fulfil the obligation of Zakaat exclusively with a view to seeking His Pleasure. Aameen.
::Masaa'il (Laws & Rules) pertaining to Zakaat::
Mas’alah 1- Zakaat is essential and compulsory for one who possesses 612 grams of silver or about 88 grams of gold and one year has Passed over it and remains with him unused or consumed. If the quantity is less than this, then Zakaat will not be compulsory.
Mas’alah 2-If one had 90 grams of gold for four or six months and then the quantity was reduced before the prescribed quantity and again regained after two or three months then also Zakaat will be essential. . Thus if in the beginning or at the end of year one was rich and possessed the prescribed wealth and in the middle had less than that for sometime, then Zakaat is essential and one is not excused from its payment. But if the whole wealth is lost and again he gets it, then the period of one shall be counted from the day of regaining it.
Mas’alah 3-One had wealth more than the prescribed limit, but ode full year did not pass over it and was consumed before the end of the year, then payment of Zakaat will not be due.
Mas’alah 4-If one has Rs.4000/- upon which Zakaat is essential and he is also indebted for RS. 4000/-; then Zakaat is not due upon him whether the amount remains with him for fun one year or not.
Mas’alah 5-If one has RS. 4000/- and is indebted for RS. 2000/- then Zakaat will be due and essential for the remaining RS. 2000/-.
Mas’alah 6-Zakat is also essential and due upon gold or silver ornaments, utensils and silver or gold laces etc. whether they are in use or kept in a safe and is never used. Thus on everything of gold or silver Zakaat is essential provided that it is not less than the prescribed quantity.
Mas’alah 7-If gold and silver is not pure but alloyed, that is if lead is mixed with silver or brass with gold, then it should be judged whether the quantity of silver or gold is greater than lead or brass in the alloy. If the silver or gold is more, then the alloy will be treated as silver or gold and Zakaat will be essential if it is in the prescribed quantity.
Mas’alah 8-If one possesses some gold and some silver and neither of them is in the prescribed quantity, but if the total price of both is equal to the price of 612 grams of silver or 88 grams of gold, then Zakaat will be essential, not due if less. But if both gold and silver arc in prescribed quantity then there is no need to assess their value as Zakaat is due upon it.
Mas’alah 9- Suppose the rate of gold is Rs 4500/- per 10 gram and of silver RS. 100/- per 10 gram and one possesses 25 grams of gold and it remains with him for full one year, then Zakaat is due and essential on this gold because with the price of this gold i.e. RS. 11250/- 1125 grams of silver can be purchased and the prescribed limit of silver is 612 grams.
Mas’alah 10-If one had few hundred rupees with him more than his requirement and before the end of the year he received some more, then the additional ' money will not be counted separately and at the end of the year Zakaat on the entire sum will be due and essential as if he had the entire amount for the whole year.
Mas’alah 11-If one had I kg. of silver and before the end he received some gold also, then the gold will not be counted separately but jointly with the silver and Zakaat will be essential on both at the end of one year.
Mas’alah 12 -Besides gold and silver other goods like copper, iron, brass etc. and vessels made of them, clothes, shoes, etc. if am meant for sale, then their cost should be valued and if it comes equal to the price of 612 grams silver or 88 grams of gold, then at the end of year Zakaat will be due on these. But if their value is less than that, Zakaat will hot be due. But if these goods are not for sale, Zakaat will not be due at whatever value the goods may be.
Mas’alah 13-The household goods are exempted from Zakaat. There is no Zakaat on vessels-large or small, residential house clothes, necklaces of real pearls-whatever their quantity may be. In short, with the exception of silver and gold, every other thing (if not for sale) as exempted from Zakaat.
Mas’alah 14- If one owns several houses and they are let out on rent, there is no Zakaat on them ,whatever their value may be. In the same way someone purchased some utensils and lets them out on hire, then no Zakaat is due on them.
Mas’alah 15-clothes, however costly, are exempted from Zakaat but if they are embroidered with gold or silver thread and its cost, if removed, will be more than 612 grams of silver, then Zakaat will be due otherwise not.
Mas’alah 16-If anyone is in possession of some gold or silver find some merchandise goods also, then the value of all should be calculated and if it is equal to the price of 612 grants of Silver or 88 grams of gold, then Zakaat is due on all otherwise not.
Mas’alah 17-The merchandise goods are those which are purchased with the intention of trade; but if one purchased some rice for domestic use or for wedding purpose and later on sold it then Zakaat will not be due on this rice.
Mas’alah 18-If some money has been given as loan to some one, then Zakaat is due on this amount and must be paid by the lender. Loan is of three kinds i.e. gold and silver, cash or sold something and its price is due and ,vas realised after two or three years. If it is equal to the amount on which Zakaat is essential, then it is compulsory on the whole amount. If the amount was not realised in lump sum, then whenever eleven rupees are realised, Zakaat will be due and on subsequent instalments of that amount but not on less than that. Whenever eleven rupees are realised, Zakaat should be paid and for all the two or three years.
But if the amount loaned out is less than the prescribed limit, no Zakaat will be due.
But if he possesses some other trade goods also besides this,then its value should be calculated and if both exceed the limit then Zakaat will be due.
Mas’alah 19-The second kind of loan is when neither cash is lent nor anything of trade is sold, but sold ,wearing clothes or some of the domestic goods and their price was realised after several years and its amount is such on which Zakaat is due, then Whenever it is realised Zakaat is essential for all the years. But if the whole amount is not realised at a time but is paid in instalments, then so long as RS. 700/- are not realised Zakaat will not be due and whenever this amount is received, Zakaat for all the years is essential.
Mas’alah 20-The third kind of Joan is that a wife's dowry is due towards the husband and it was paid after several years. Then its Zakaat will be due from the time it is realised but not of earlier when it was not paid by the husband, provided that it remains with her for one full year.
Mas’alah 21-If a wealthy man, liable for Zakaat, pays Zakaat before the end of year, then the payment is in order and the obligation will be discharged. But if a person has no wealth but in the expectation of receiving some wealth pays Zakaat in advance for that wealth, then the Zakaat will not be in order. When he gets the wealth and one full year passes over it, he should again pay Zakaat.
Mas’alah 22-If a wealthy person pays Zakaat in advance for several years, then it is permissible. But if any year the wealth increases than the estimate for that year, then extra Zakaat shall have to be paid.
Mas’alah 23-One has one thousand rupees more than his need and expects to receive one thousand rupees more and paid Zakaat for RS. 2000/- before receiving the amount. It is in order. But if at the end of year the amount retrains less than the prescribed limit (Nisaab), then Zakaat is remitted and the amount paidwill be treated as Sadqa-e-Naafilah i.e. an amount paid over andabove the obligation.
Mas’alah 24 -A whole year passed over a man's wealth and before its Zakaat was paid, the wealth ,vas stolen, then Zakaat is also excused. But if he himself gave it away to someone or destroyed it intentionally, then the due Zakaat shall have to be paid and it will not be remitted.
Mas’alah 25-If at the end of one year, anyone gave away all of his wealth as charity, then Zakaat is also remitted.
Mas’alah 26-One had two hundred rupees, but at the end of the year one hundred rupees were stolen or he gave away as charity, the Zakaat for one hundred rupees only will be due.
Mas’alah 27-Wben one full year has passed over anyone's wealth, Zakaat should be paid immediately as it is not appreciable to delay it as it is possible that one may die suddenly and the responsibility will remain upon his shoulders. If anyone did pay Zakaat for one year and the next year also passed, even then he Should repent and pay Zakaat for both the wars, otherwise would be a sinner. In short Zakaat should be paid within life-time and should not allow to remain due.
Mas’alah 28-It is essential to pay fortieth part of the wealth as Zakaat or two and a half percent of the money.
Mas’alah 29-When the Zakaat is given to a poor it should be the intent in mind that he is giving Zakaat. If the intent was not there, then Zakaat is not paid and it should be paid again.
Mas’alah 30-The whole amount of Zakaat may be given to One or several persons' either at a time or in several days or months. It is better to give it to a poor in such quantity which may be sufficient for him for that day.
Mas’alah 31-It is execrable to give to one person so much amount upon which Zakaat is due. But if given, the obligation will be discharged. To give less than that is permissible and not execrable.
Mas’alah 32-If anyone asks for loan and it is known that he is in poor circumstances or not good in repayment of loan and will never pay, and loan was given to him out of Zakaat money with the intent of Zakaat then Zakaat is paid even though the other person thinks it to be loan.
Mas’alah 33-If an amount was given as reward to someone but with the intent of Zakaat in, mind, even then Zakaat is paid.
Mas’alah 34-If ten rupees are due towards anyone and the amount to be-paid as Zakaat is also ten rupees, then the due amount cannot be remitted thinking that it would be Zakaat. But if ten rupees are given to him with the intention of Zakaat then the obligation of Zakaat will be fulfilled and this money may be taken back in settlement of the loan.
Mas’alah 35-If anyone did not pay Zakaat himself and gave it to someone else to pay, then it is permissible, even if the other person does not intend while paying that it is Zakaat, the Zakaat will be settled.
Mas’alah 36-Ifanyone instructs another person to pay Zakaat on his behalf and he pays it, then the obligation of Zakaat is fulfilled and he can take back the amount spent by him in payment of Zakaat.
Mas’alah 37-If anyone was not asked to pay Zakaat on behalf of someone and he paid without his permission, then Zakaat is not settled, even if now the other person recognise it to have been paid on his behalf. It should be paid again.
::ZAKAAT ON PRODUCE OF LAND::
Mas’alah 1-If a certain place or town was in possession of non-believers who lived there. It was taken over by Muslims after battle and Islam was propagated there. The Muslim ruler appropriating the lands of non-believers distributed it among the Muslims, then such lands will be called ‘Ushree according to religious code. If the residents of that place accept Islam voluntarily even then its lands will be called ‘Ushree. All the land in Arabia is ‘Ushree.
Mas’alah 2-If anyone inherits such Ushree land from his ancestors or purchases it from a Muslim who held it as ‘Ushree, then Zakaat is essential on whatever is produced in the land in the following way :
If the produce in land is without irrigation and With rain water only or anything was produced in wet land on the bank of a river without being irrigated with its water, then it is essential to give one-tenth of the produce as Zakaat or charity i.e. one kg. out often kg. But if the land is irrigated, then one-twentieth of its total produce should be given away in charity.
The same rule applies to orchards and such other lands, howsoever small the produce may be, this charity is essential and the large or small quantity of produce makes no difference.
Mas’alah 3-The same rule applies to all kinds of produce like grain, vegetables, fruits and flowers etc.
Mas’alah 4-If honey is obtained from Ushree land, hills or forests the same charity is also due on it.
Mas’alah 5-If Ushree land is purchased by a non-believer, then it no longer remains an Ushree land, but if it is purchased again by a Muslim from -this non-Muslim or acquires it somehow or other, even then it will not be Ushree and shall remain non-Ushree.
Mas’alah 6-The quantity of one-tenth or one-twentieth of the produce to be given in charity, is to be given by the personwho produces it. But if the land has been let out on the Share of produce, then both the parties should give out of their respective shares.
::WHO IS ENTITLED TO RECEIVE ZAKAAT?::
Mas’alah 1-Anyone who possesses the prescribed quantity of wealth as explained above, is a wealthy, man according to religious code. For such a person it is not permissible to receive Zakaat.
Also if anyone possesses property of the value of prescribed limit though it is not meant for business but more than his need, then such a person is also not entitled to receive Zakaat, though he himself is not liable to pay Zakaat.
Mas’alah 2-One who does not possess so much of wealth or has very little even to be sufficient for one day, he is called a poor. Paying to and receiving by such persons of Zakaatt money is in order and permissible.
Mas’alah 3-Large vessels, carpets, shaamiyaanah (canopy) etc. which are needed in certain ceremonies and not in daily use are not included in necessary goods.
Mas’alah 4-The house, wearing apparel and other things of daily use are all necessary possessions and anyone possessing these will not be counted as wealthy whatever may be their value and it is permissible to give him Zakaat. Also books and other necessities of an educated person are included among his necessary possessions.
Mas’alah 5-lf anyone possesses several houses which he has lent out on rent and lives on their income or someone owns a village or two and has income from them, but he has such a large family and dependants that the income does not suffice and lives in strain and also does not possess any such thing upon which Zakaat is essential, then to pay Zakaat to such a person is permissible.
Mas’alah 6-If anyone possesses one thousand rupees, but is also indebted equal to the same amount, then it is permissible to give Zakaat tar him. But if he is indebted for less than one thousand rupees and after deducting the amount of debt so much is left on which Zakaat is due, -then it is not permissible to give him Zakaat, but if the remaining amount is less, then it is permissible.
Mas’alah 7-If a person is very wealthy, but while travelling it so happened that everything was stolen and was left with nothing to return home. Then it is permissible for such a person to receive Zakaat. So if a Haajee (pilgrim) spent all his money and was left with no money to return home, though he may be possessing wealth at home, then it is permissible to give him Zakaat.
Mas’alah 8-It is not permissible to give Zakaat to a non-believer. It should be given to Muslims only. But other charity, besides Zakaat, Ushr, Sadqa-e-Fitr and Kaffaarah (recompensation money), is permissible to be given to non-believers.
Mas’alah 9-It is not proper and permissible to build a mosque with Zakaat money, or to arrange funeral and burial of an unclaimed dead body or to pay the debt of a deceased or to spend it in any other item of charity. The obligation of Zakaat will not be discharged unless given to the needy.
Mas’alah 10-It is not proper and permissible to give Zakaat to one's parents or grand-parents etc. (from whom he was born) or to his children or grand children, great-grandsons and maternal grand children, i.e. those who are included in his issues. The husband also cannot give it to his wife or the wife to the husband.
Mas’alah 11-With the exception of the above mentioned relatives, it is permissible to give Zakaat to other relatives such as, brother, sister, niece, maternal niece, uncle, father’s sister, mother’s sister, maternal uncle, step-mother, step-father, step-grand father, mother-in-law and father-in-law etc.
Mas’alah 12-It is not permissible to give Zakaat to a minor child whose father is wealthy. But if the child, male or female. is matured and is himself not wealthy but his father is, then it is permissible to give hi n of her Zakaat.
Mas’alah 13 -If the father of a minor child is poor but his. mother is wealthy, then it is permissible to give him Zakaat.
Mas’alah 14-It is not permissible to give Zakaat to Sayyid, Alavees, the descendent of Hadhrat, Abbaas, Hadhrat Ja’far, Hadhrat Aqeel or Hadhrat Haaris Bin Abdul Muttalib, But besides Zakaat Ushr, Nazr, Kaffaarah and Sadqa-e-Fitr, other charities may be given to them.
Mas’alah 15-It is permissible to give Zakaat to domestic servants, maid-servants, nurses etc. but it should not be counted in their wages. But may be given as reward intending it as Zakaat.
Mas’alah 16-It is permissible to give Zakaat to a woman who suckled him as a child or by a woman to a child who was suckled by her.
Mas’alah 17-If a woman's Mehr (Dower) is one thousand rupees but her husband is very poor and cannot pay, then it is permissible to give her Zakaat. It is also permissible to give Zakaat to a woman whose husband, though wealthy, does not pay her dower or she has remitted it. But not to a woman who is convinced that her husband will pay the dower whenever it is demanded.
Mas’alah 18- If Zakaat was given to someone thinking him to be a poor and later on it was discovered that he was wealthy or Sayyid, or it was given in darkness and later on it revealed that the person Was such a relative to whom. it is ,not permissible, then in all such cases the obligation of Zakaat is met and it is not necessary to give it again. But if that who received it, finds that it was Zakaat for which he is not entitled, then he should return it. If after giving Zakaat to someone it was confirmed -that he was a non-believer, then Zakaat is not paid and it should be paid again.
Mas’alah 19-If there is doubt about a person whether he is rich or poor, then without ascertaining the correct position Zakaat should not be given. If it was given without enquiry, then it should be judged in mind as to which side is weighty. If it is felt that the man is poor, then the Zakaat is proper and settled and should not be given again. But if after giving Zakaat it was found that the man was rich, then it should be paid again and it is not settled.
Mas’alah 20-In giving Zakaat and all other charities, greatest consideration should be kept for relatives and they should be given preference over others, but without telling them that it was charity lest they may feel it. It has been reported in Traditions that giving of charity to relatives has double reward-one or giving charity and the other for doing good to relatives. Whatever is left after giving them, be given to others.
Mas’alah 21-It is execrable to send Zakaat of one city to the Other. But if one's relatives are living in another city it may be sent to them, or the people of the other city more needy then this city or they are engaged. in religious work, than sending Zakaat for them is not execrable. Its giving to students, religious teachers, scholars and men of piety is of great merit.
Mas’alah 1- Any Muslim who has so much that Zakaat is due on him or on whom Zakaat is not essential but has goods more then his need on whose value Zakaat could be due, whether the property is for trade or not and whether a year has passed on it or not, it is essential for him to give Sadqah on Eid day and this charity is called Sadqa-e-Fitr.
Mas’alah 2-If one possesses a large house of substantial value and also has costly clothes and other goods of necessity, but no ornaments, or in such quantity upon which Zakaat is not due, then Sadqa-e-Fitr is not essential for him.
Mas’alah 3-If a person has two houses, in one of them ho resides and the other is vacant or is let out on rent, then the other house is more than his need and if its price is such on which Zakaat becomes due for him, the Sadqa-e-Fitr is essential for him and giving of Zakaat to him is also not proper. But if he depends upon the income of this house then it will also be counted in his necessary goods and then Sadqa-e-Fitr will not be essential for him and it will also be permissible for him to take Zakaat.
In short, one fu: whom it is permissible to take Zakaat and Sadqa-e-Fitr, then Sadqa-e-Fitr is not due and essential for him. But it is essential for those who are not entitled to take Zakaat or Sadqa-e-Fitr.
Mas’alah 4-If anyone possesses more property then his need but he is indebted also, then if after deducting the amount of debt so much is left on which Zakaat is due, Sadqa-e-Fitr will also be due, but not if it is less.
Mas’alah 5 -On Eid-day at the time of Fajr prayer, Sadqa-e-Fitr becomes due, but if one dies before Fajr prayer, then Sadqa-e-Fitr is not due on him and it should not be paid out of his left-over property.
Mas’alah 6-It is better to give Sadqa-e-Fitr before going for Eid-prayer, but if not offered before, then it may be paid after-wards.
Mas’alah 7-If anyone paid Sadqa-e-Fitr in Ramadhaan before Eid, then it is discharged and need not pay it again.
Mas’alah 8-If anyone did not pay Sadqa-e-Fitr on Eid-day, then it is not remitted and it should be paid on any day.
Mas’alah 9-Sadqa-e-Fitr is due for oneself and on behalf of minor children but not for major children. It maybe paid on behalf of an insane. The major children should pay their own.
Mas’alah 10-If minor child possesses so much property on which Sadqa-e-Fitr is due, then it should be paid out of it.
Mas’alah 11- Sadqa-e-Fitr is essential for both-one who observed fasts in Ramadhaan and one who did not due to any reason.
Mas’alah 12- If wheat or its flour or powder of parched wheat is given as Sadqa-e-Fitr, then it should be one kg and 667 grams. in weight, but as a precaution full two kg. of these be given. But if barley or its flour is given, then it should be double of this quantity.
Mas’alah 13-If some other grain, other than wheat and barley, is given (grain or millet) then its value should be equal to the value of above mentioned quantity of wheat or barley.
Mas’alah 14- If no wheat or barley etc. was given, but the cost of the presented quantity was given, that, it is much better.
Mas’alah 15-The Sadqa-e-Fitr of one person may lie given to one poor or be distributed among several. Both procedures are correct.
Mas’alah 16- It is also permissible if Sadqa-e-Fitr of several persons is given to one poor only.
Mas’alah 17-Those entitled to take Zakaat are also eligible to take Sadqa-e-Fitr.